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© Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, 2021

The material in this handbook has been provided by the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, the Commonwealth and third parties. Copyright in material provided by the Commonwealth or third parties belongs to them. PSA owns the copyright in the handbook as a whole and all material in the handbook that has been developed by PSA. In relation to PSA-owned material, no part may be reproduced by any process except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), or the written permission of PSA. Requests and inquiries regarding permission to use PSA material should be addressed to: The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia, PO Box 42, Deakin West, ACT, 2600. Where you would like to use material that has been provided by the Commonwealth or third parties, contact them directly.

First published in 1902

Twenty-second edition, 2012
Twenty-third edition, 2015
Twenty-fourth edition, 2018
Twenty-fifth edition, 2021

Publisher: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia
Pharmaceutical Society of Australia project team: Emma Abate, Carolyn Allen, Claire Antrobus, Ness Clancy, Lynn Greig, Stefanie Johnston, Lichin Lim, Jan Ridd, Milica Ristivojevic, Melanie Vogler, Jacob Warner
Copyediting and proofing: Biotext Pty Ltd
Pharmaceutical Society of Australia proofing team: Kerri Barwick, Danielle Durham, Clara Fittler, Yee Mellor, Hoa Nguyen, Jocelyn Sisson

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data

Title: Australian Pharmaceutical Formulary and Handbook
Edition: Twenty-five
Chair, Editorial Board: Sansom, Lloyd
Date of publication: February 2021
ISBN (print): 978-0-908185-34-4
ISSN: 1446-2710

Recommended citation

Sansom LN, ed. Australian pharmaceutical formulary and handbook. 25th edn. Canberra: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 2021.

Sansom LN, ed. Australian pharmaceutical formulary and handbook [online]. Canberra: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 2023.


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The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia has prepared this handbook to assist pharmacists to comply with Australian pharmaceutical conditions and standards and makes it available on the understanding that users exercise their own skill and care with respect to its use, and understand that it is subject to revision and regular updates. This handbook is no substitute for professional knowledge and judgement, and use of the information it contains is strictly at the user’s own risk. While every care has been taken to ensure that the information contained in this handbook accords with the accepted Australian Standards and/or clinical practice at the time of production, no representation or warranty (express or implied) is made as to the currency, completeness, accuracy, reliability and suitability of the information contained in this handbook, having regard to constant changes in information resulting from continuing research and clinical experience, reasonable differences in opinions among authorities, unique aspects of individual situations and the possibility of human error in preparing such an extensive text. It is the responsibility of the user to conduct their own investigations to ensure that the information provided is accurate, complete and relevant for their purpose. This may include consulting and comparing information from other sources such as the manufacturer’s Product Information approved by the Commonwealth Government of Australia.

PSA does not specifically endorse products, suppliers, manufacturers or services cited in this handbook.

Any person or organisation proposing to use this handbook in a country other than Australia should check local conditions and standards to determine whether the information contained in this handbook complies with local conditions, standards, and the manufacturer’s product information.

PSA and all other contributors expressly disclaim liability to any person whatsoever in respect of anything done by any such person in reliance, whether in whole or in part, on this handbook including for, but not limited to:

  • use of this handbook for a purpose for which it was not intended;
  • any errors or omissions in this handbook;
  • any inaccuracy in the information or data on which this handbook is based or which is contained in this handbook;
  • any interpretations or opinions stated in, or which may be inferred from, this handbook; or
  • any non-compliance with conditions and standards in any country.