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Last updated: 14 July, 2023


Medicine safety principles

1. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Medicine safety: take care. Canberra: PSA; 2019.

2. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. National safety and quality health service standards. 2nd edn. Sydney: ACSQHC; 2017.

3. World Health Organization. The third WHO global patient safety challenge: medication without harm. 2017. At:

4. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Patient safety: pharmacists' role in medication without harm. The Hague: FIP; 2020.

5. World Health Organization. Medication errors: technical series on safer primary care. Geneva: WHO; 2016.

6. Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Australia. SHPA standards of practice for medication safety. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research 2012;42(4):300–4.

7. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Clinical governance principles for pharmacy services. Canberra: PSA; 2018.

8. Allen P. Clinical governance in primary care: accountability for clinical governance—developing collective responsibility for quality in primary care. BMJ 2000;321(7261):608–11.

9. Australian Government Department of Health. National strategy for quality use of medicines. Canberra: Department of Health; 2002.

10. International Pharmaceutical Federation. FIP statement of policy: the role of pharmacists in promoting patient safety. The Hague: FIP; 2020.

11. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Pharmacists in 2023: for patients, for our profession, for Australia's health system. Canberra: PSA; 2019.

12. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Pharmacists in 2023: roles and remuneration. Canberra: PSA; 2019.

13. Vira T, Colquhoun M, Etchells E. Reconcilable differences: correcting medication errors at hospital admission and discharge. Qual Saf Health Care 2006;15(2):122–6.

14. Rozich J, Resar R. Medication safety: one organization's approach to the challenge. J Clin Out Manag 2001;8(10):27–34.

Evidence-based medicine

1. National Health and Medical Research Council. NHMRC additional levels of evidence and grades for recommendations for developers of guidelines. Canberra: NHMRC; 2009.

2. Wiedenmayer K, Summers RS, Mackle CA, et al. Developing pharmacy practice: a focus on patient care. Geneva: WHO; 2006. At:

3. Buckingham J, Fisher B, Saunders D. Evidence based medicine toolkit: clinical epidemiology glossary. 2008. At:

4. Cochrane Collaboration. Glossary. 2017. At:

5. National Prescribing Service. Questions to ask when evaluating a new drug. Sydney: NPS; 2013.

6. Knowledge Translation Program. Glossary of EBM terms. At:…

7. Higgins JPT, Green S, eds. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration; 2011. At:

8. Strimbu K, Tavel JA. What are biomarkers?. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2010;56:463–6.

9. Hayward Medical Communications. Evidence-based medicine: what is ...? series. 2009. At:

10. US National Library of Medicine. Health economics information resources: a self-study course. 2013. At:

11. Scott I. Interpreting risks and ratios in therapy trials. Aust Prescr 2008;31:12–6.

12. World Health Organization. The importance of pharmacovigilance: safety monitoring of medicinal products. Geneva: WHO; 2002. At:

13. National Cancer Institute. Dictionary of cancer terms. At: